Surgical Outcome Risk Tool v1 (SORT)

This tool has been superceded by version 2

Main Group

Sub Group

Procedure Description


Minor   Intermediate   Major    Xmajor/complex


1   2   3   4   5


Elective   Expedited   Urgent    Immediate

Thoracics, gastrointestinal or vascular surgery

Yes   No


Yes   No


<65   65-79   >80


The SORT uses some information about patient health and the planned surgical procedure to provide an estimate of the risk of death within 30 days of an operation. The percentages provided by the SORT are only estimates taking into account the general risks of the procedure and some information about the patient, but should not be confused with a patient-specific estimate in an individual case. As with all risk prediction tools, not every factor which may affect outcome can be included, and there may well be other patient-specific and surgical factors which may influence the risk of death significantly.

This resource is not intended to be used in isolation for clinical decision making and should not replace the advice of a healthcare professional about the potential risks or benefits of a planned procedure. Neither the Surgical Outcomes Research Centre (SOuRCe) or the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD) are responsible for decisions made by healthcare professionals or patients which are based on the estimates provided by the SORT, as these estimates are provided only for the purposes of background information.

Healthcare professionals should not rely on, nor act upon, the mortality risk percentage without reviewing it and using it in conjunction with their clinical judgement/knowledge and as part of their overall toolkit.

Patients should always consult a healthcare professional in decision-making about their health and treatment.

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This tool has been superceded by version 2

User notes

All values must be present before the calculation can take place.
Surgical severity will be calculated automatically on entry of procedure details.
If the procedure you are searching for is not listed, please use the nearest available procedure for calculation.

About SORT

The SORT is a pre-operative risk prediction tool for death within 30 days of surgery. It has been developed and validated for use in inpatient non-neurological, non-cardiac surgery in adults (aged 16 or over).

This web resource is the result of a collaborative effort between NCEPOD researchers (Karen Protopapa and Neil Smith) and doctors in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine who are part of the SOuRCe team (Ramani Moonesinghe and Jo Simpson).

The UCL/UCLH Surgical Outcomes Research Centre (SOuRCe)

The National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD)

Further Information

Intellectual property: the tool in its present form is available for use in any future validation studies. However, if you wish to modify the tool and formula (remix, transform, build upon it), please contact the corresponding author ( The manuscript is freely available under Open Access but should be cited where appropriate. The web link to the tool is available for use on your intranets/websites and can be used real time or via screenshots in any presentations you might make.

If you experience any problems then please